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Useful weblinks: War With Troy, Episode 2

Priam and Hecuba's Choice
Troy: where in the world?
    The ruins of the ancient city lie on the coast of modern Turkey.
Troy: the ancient coastline
    Bays, ridges, rivers, marshes and plains made up the geography of Troy.
Troy: a bird's-eye view of the landscape
    Around the time of our story, Troy and its surrounding area may have looked like this.
Recent research has revealed a large and impressive lower city that spread out from the well-known and massively fortified upper city, called Ilium.
Here's a labelled version.
Troy: walls, palaces, temples, streets & houses
    This reconstruction, based on the results of recent archaeolgical work, shows how the city may have looked around the year 1200 BC, a date often proposed for the Trojan War - a story perhaps based on a real event.
The upper city with its large palace-type buildings was known as Ilium and was heavily defended by a tall, thick wall with towers.
If you were standing inside the city over 3000 years ago, it may have resembled something like this set of movie Troy.
Here's another artist's impression of Troy as viewed from the plain below the city.
Troy: all that's left today
    Aerial view of the upper city which would have contained the palaces, temples and admisitrative buildings.
It was defended by impressive walls.
Troy & the Trojan War: fact & fiction
    Terrific website - one of the best on the internet - about Troy. Explore the ruins of the city, look at movies of the the reconstructed city, and learn about the legends!
There were nine major rebuilds of Troy, one on top of another; jump now to the sixth layer, Troy VI, which many believe was the city that was standing at the time of the Trojan War - if there was a war!
White-bearded Priam: ancient
    Close-up of the elderly King Priam on an ancient Greek drinking cup; painted by the Brygos Painter, around 480 BC.
Black & white version here.
This beautiful, little cup is in the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum.
White-bearded Priam: modern
    As played by the actor Peter O'Toole in the movie Troy.
Queen Hecuba
    Close-up of Hecuba painted on a Greek red-figure amphora, dating to c.510 BC, by the potter and painter Euthymides. You can see he painted her Greek name HEKABE next to her.
In the Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich, Germany.
Classical sources for the above section:
> Hyginus, Fabulae 91 (Latin book of myths, 1st-2nd C. AD)
 
Paris' Choice
Handsome Paris: ancient
    Detail of the youthful Paris.
Red-figure vase in the British Museum (E178) dating to c.470 BC painted by the so-called "Painter of the Yale Oinochoe".
Here's a slightly larger black & white image.
Handsome Paris: modern
    The most recent actor to play Paris is hearthrob Orlando Bloom.
Not just a pretty face...he can use a bow and arrow as well.
Mount Ida
    Not exactly next to Troy... but what's 50 miles or so in an epic story!
In most ancient versions, Paris is brought up not as a prince in Troy but as an animal herder on Mt Ida. So in many of the depictions of "Paris' choice" - usually known as "the Judgement of Paris" - he is characterised as a shepherd or goatherd with crook and attendant animals. Often he's shown with a lyre which links him to the lyre-playing god, Apollo, who was the founder of Troy.
The Judgement of Paris: Greek pot
    Paris the shepherd - check out the woolly sheep next to him - gives the apple to Aphrodite. Behind her comes Athene, the only readily-identifiable goddess with her snakey-frilled breastplate. Hera's all muffled up - in fact, at this time c.470 BC it would have been considered shameful to have depicted goddesses with no clothes on!
Red-figure vase in the British Museum (E178) dating to c.470 BC painted by the so-called "Painter of the Yale Oinochoe".
The Judgement of Paris: Roman mosaic
    Roman mosaic depicting Hermes on the left instructing a seated Paris - tending his flock as a shepherd - as to his task. The goddesses from left to right are: Athene (with armour), Aphrodite (with Eros/Cupid above) and Hera.
Dating c.115-150 AD from Antioch, Syria. Now in the Louvre.
The Judgement of Paris: baroque painting
    "And the golden apple goes to..."
The goddesses' identities are indicated by their attributes: armour and owl for Athene, peacock for Hera, and winged Eros (Cupid) for Aphrodite, her winning status shown by hovering cupids showering her with petals. You can almost hear her saying "Me? What a surprise!"
Hermes, with his winged helmet and messenger's staff, watches from behind a tree...
By the Dutch artist Hendrick van Balen, 1599; in the Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
The Judgement of Paris: baroque painting 2
    This more sumptuous painting is by a Swiss artist Lodovico David, painted c.1690 and now in the Ringling Museum of Art in Florida.
The Judgement of Paris: modern painting
    Terrific modern oil painting by the living Portuguese artist Rosario Andrade. Peacocks, armour and gorgeous, flowing hair advertise the three, sassy goddesses!
Classical sources for the above section:
> Euripides, Andromache 284ff (Greek tragedy, c.428-424 BC)
> Apollodorus, Library E.3.2 (Greek book of myths, 1st C. AD)
> Ovid, Heroides 16.51 ff (Latin poem, c.25-16 BC)
> Hyginus, Fabulae 92 (Latin book of myths, 1st-2nd C. AD)
> Lucian, Judgement of the Goddesses (Greek satire, 2nd C. AD)
 
Helen's Choice
The backstory of Helen's parentage was famous in antiquity. Her mother was Leda, queen of Sparta and her father was Zeus - but he came to her in the form of a swan... Then Leda laid some eggs (as you do) out of which popped Helen! This myth was, and still is, popular in art. Here are just a few of the more charming examples:
Helen's parents - Leda & Zeus: ancient statue
    Roman marble statue possibly reflecting a lost work by the Greek sculptor Timotheos; partly restored; in the Prado Museum, Madrid. There are over 20 known Roman copies of this statue!
Helen's parents - Leda & Zeus: modern painting
    Lovely modern painting by the contemporary American artist Michael Bergt.
Family portrait: renaissance painting
    Leda, after her encounter with the swan (Zeus in cunning disguise) eventually laid some eggs(!) and when they hatched there emerged the babies Castor, Pollux, Clytemnestra and Helen.
Painting of 1515-1520 by Cesare da Sesto, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci who copied Leonardo's artwork which is now sadly lost. This copy is in Wilton House, Wiltshire, England.
So how do you portray Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world? Beauty, of course, is in the eye of the beholder... but here are a few examples of Helen's image through time:
Helen: a Greek portrait
    Detail from a Greek pot, dating 450�440 BC; now in the Louvre, Paris.
Helen: a Victorian portrait
    Painted in 1898 by Evelyn De Morgan; in the De Morgan Centre, London.
Helen: a modern portrait
    Photo-realistic drawing in coloured pencil showing Helen stepping towards the viewer (...Paris?) after seeing the Greek fleet with her husband Menelaus approaching.
2006, by American artist Howard David Johnson.
Helen: a modern movie-star
    In the 2004 blockbuster movie Troy, Helen was played by the actress Diane Kruger.
Helen: villain or victim?
    Article detailing the ancient Greeks' contradictory views of Helen.
For all her fame Helen, in fact, appears only 6 times in the Iliad, the most famous ancient account of the Trojan War: four times in Book 3, once in Book 6, and once in Book 24, the last book.

Back to our story...and Helen chooses...
Menelaus
    A youthful Roman portrait; it's a detail from a wall-painting from Pompeii known as "The Sacrifice of Iphigenia".
Dating to c.50-79 AD; now in the National Archaeological Museum at Naples.
Classical sources for the above section:
Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, Loeb frag.68 (Greek poem c.700 BC)
> Euripides, Iphigenia in Aulis 57ff (Greek tragedy, 410 BC)
> Hyginus, Fabulae 78 (Latin book of myths, 1st-2nd C. AD)
> Pausanias, Guide to Greece 3.20.9 (Greek guidebook, 2nd C. AD)

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